Is Agile Suited to Competitive Software Projects more than Support-based Software Projects?

I came across this interesting post on the LinkedIn CSM board today from Victor Penman and felt compelled to provide my 2 cents.

Who actually implements Agile?

Companies whose main product is software are more likely to implement Agile practices than companies where software (including IT) is a support function. This is what I have observed at the 12 companies where I have seen Agile (usually Scrum) either introduced or attempted to be implemented.

I believe this is because companies that sell or license software need products that will compete in the real world where customers have many options. Support software only has to be adequate.

The quality that comes from Agile, including the close interaction with customers, ability to pivot in response to changing market conditions or customer desires, and allowing teams to determine the best way to deliver, provides a needed competitive advantage.

Software developed for internal support does not face these pressures. Its users are unable to turn to a competitor. This allows support managers to continue to operate in the traditional Command and Control mode. If Agile practices are mandated from above, it is more likely that only the trappings of Agile (ceremonies for example) will be implemented.

I will appreciate hearing if others’ observations support or refute mine.

Turns out my 2 cents is actually more like $4.50 so I decided to post my response here (I ran out of room in the LinkedIn response box).

I agree with your premise to an extent but believe that in addition to pressure (rather than calling it competition) a team also requires an environment in which learning from experiments (rather than safety from abject failure) is encouraged. I have 3 experiences in particular that lead me to this conclusion.

In the case of pressure without safety to “fail”, I look back to one product-based business I worked with that was under extreme pressure to perform. Although the team is one of the smartest I’ve worked with, the product company still collapsed as a result of poor product implementations which led to loss of customer confidence. I believe a big component of the failure was due to the focus on architecting perfect implementations from the start rather than delivering solutions early to customers and learning from the interactions.

In the case of no pressure with safety to fail, I’m reminded of one product-based business that I worked with that had attempted to implement a new version of a core product 3 times over the course of 5+ years. I was involved in the 3rd attempt and soon after I left they started on the 4th attempt. This is a company that had made, and continued to make, a lot of money from their existing product and client-base. As a result, there was too much safety to fail so there was no push to experiment or learn from mistakes quickly.

The third project I want to point out was a successful project for an internal system for a large utility. In this particular project, there was immense pressure in the form of limited resources and time. In return, the project team was given a huge amount of safety around failure by the business owners. Although the project was given approx. 5 months of budget in which to complete, the project was re-assessed by a panel of business owners every month. At each monthly meeting, the team would communicate to the business any potential risks to the success of the project and if anything was deemed insurmountable, the panel had the right to pull the plug on the project. “Pulling the plug” on the project would not result in blame being attributed to any group or person, it was just considered a natural decision that had to be made as new information came to light.

The main take away from my 3 examples is that the first two failures were both product companies but both lacked a critical element. The third one was, as you call it, an internal project to develop support software – yet this project has been one of my most successful to date – the business owners were happy as they came within budget and the end-users were so eager to use the system that the beta system went “viral” internally. I attribute the success of this project to both pressure and safety to experiment.

‘Engaged Leaders’ or Learning Organisations?

[Go here to see my Issue Map of Charlene’s Article]

I read an article today by Charlene Li on ‘Why No One Uses the Corporate Social Network’ and felt compelled to provide my response as a short blog post. I don’t necessarily disagree with what was written. For the most part I agree with it and feel that what was written has a lot of value to getting value from an enterprise social network. The part of find a little bit difficult to swallow is the attribution of the success of the 3 case studies to an “engaged leader” and that it takes leadership participation to get good collaborative outcomes.

My alternative perspective is that the common thread in all 3 of the case studies, as Charlene has described them, is that the leadership appreciated the importance of being a “learning organisation”. This may not have been an explicit goal for any of the leaders mentioned in the anecdotes, but their actions definitely exhibited signs of an eagerness to learn from all parts of the business on what was being done wrong and how things could be improved – and in turn the business also learns from the leader. As a result of this appreciation, these leaders were what Charlene refers to as “engaged leaders”. Charlene does mention this in her article when she provides her definition of an “engaged leader”, but I feel the importance of this “learning centric” view is somewhat downplayed by the article focusing on the “3 steps” that the leader must exhibit.

So what? It’s all the same anyway…

Not necessarily… if a leader appreciates the importance of being a learning organisation, they don’t actually have to implement the steps themselves. Requiring that the leader implement these steps creates a kind of “hero” worship and does not make for a sustainable and resilient organisation at it requires the leader to be there. If a leader appreciates the importance of developing a learning organisation and makes it an explicit and strategic goal for the organisation as a whole to move towards this model, eventually it will eventually become embedded in the business processes, outcomes, outputs etc. thus creating a far more sustainable and resilient system.

Where to next?

If none of this resonates with you at all, feel free to ignore me. If on the other hand this makes sense to you and you haven’t already read these books (these are pretty damn popular books), I totally recommend them to you as a lot of my reflections here are informed by these readings in particular. They’re a little old but still extremely relevant – there are also newer editions available.

Learning More Effectively with IBIS Diagrams

[Updated: If you want to see an IBIS version of this post, you can find it on here]

[N.B. If you haven’t read my introduction to IBIS diagrams I suggest you go read that first before reading this as there will be a lot of references to the information there.]

My colleague Neil Preston at PsyOpus is a very intelligent and deep thinking man. As such, my favourite question to him when he has his weekly conceptual breakthrough is to ask “So what Neil?”. As you can imagine, Neil gets annoyed with me quite a lot. This post will be what I will now refer to as the “So what?” type of post. In my last post on IBIS diagrams I gave you a run down on the notation and pointed you to a piece of software that can help you build them, but so what? Having a new visual notation is no value if you don’t have a use for it and I didn’t give any actual explanation as to how I use IBIS every day to improve my work. In this post, which I’m planning on being the first in many, I hope to provide you with techniques for using IBIS to increase the effectiveness of your learning.

Just a side note, I use the word “effectiveness” not “efficiency” because, in my opinion, if you’re wanting to learn something you shouldn’t be looking to do it as quickly as possible. I could rant forever about how annoyed I am with the present thinking that “faster is better” and the growing number of people that apply this to learning, but I won’t. Instead I’ll just point to what underpins all my posts on sense making and what I believe the intention of learning is, the relentless and often never-ending journey to acquire knowledge and improve understanding.

My Method of Learning

Before I go into the details of how to use IBIS for learning, I’m going to quickly go over the method of learning I’ve adopted. This is pretty important background information as you may need to tweak the way you use IBIS diagramming if your style of learning is vastly different from mine. My style of learning has clearly evolved over the last 30 years of my life. Over the past decade since leaving structured education I’ve become more aware of my own learning process. As a result of reading various articles, posts, and books like The Well-Educated Mind: A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had, by Susan Wise Bauer, I’ve also become more disciplined in my approach.

My approach to studying a book, video, podcast, etc. Is pretty much the same and just slightly differs between the different mediums. For all media I use the following technique –

  1. Get an overview of the entire piece I’m studying.
  2. Sit through one viewing, from beginning to end, of the piece. This is just to see the piece in its entirety.
  3. Sit through the piece a second time taking more care to understand the concepts and reviewing where necessary.
  4. Go back over the notes I’ve taken, with reference to the piece I’m studying, and critically thinking about what is being said.

The first three steps are more analytical steps where I’m attempting to absorb the information. The fourth step is what I refer to as a synthesizing step. The intention is to try and assimilate the new information into my knowledge and belief systems.

Just as a quick outline, here is how these steps differ for me according to the medium.

  • Video/audio recordings
    • I will usually do step 1 and 2 at the same time by watching the video from beginning to end.
  • Articles, essays, whitepapers, and other short forms of text
    • I will usually do step 1 by looking at the summaries and the headings.
    • For step 2 I’ll read through the entire piece.
  • Books
    • I will usually do step 1 by reading the introduction and looking at the chapter headings to get an idea of where the book is heading.
    • For step 2 I’ll actually only read a single chapter before performing step 3, rather than reading the entire book through. This is more because I’m not the fastest reader and it takes me too long to read through an entire book.

Turbocharging Learning with IBIS

Now that you have an idea of my study routine, I’ll provide you with the nitty gritty of how I actually weave IBIS diagramming into it by using an example essay. I want to make it clear though that weaving IBIS into your study routine won’t come naturally at first and that it will take practice to do it proficiently. What I’m sure of is that, once you get the hang of it, you will find that it makes you a far more effective learner. Not only will you absorb the information better but you will more appropriately apply it.

The example essay I am using is George Orwell’s popular essay “Politics and the English Language”. I’ve chosen this piece mainly because it’s pretty easy to find online, if you want to read through it, and because it’s not technical (I’m already pretty technical in my day-to-day life and in a lot of posts on this blog).

Step 1 – Overview

For this particular essay, I’ve read the first two paragraphs quickly just to get an idea of what this essay will be about. This helps me in getting an idea of what the point of this essay is and I know the context in which to read it. Now normally for this kind of material I won’t bother building an initial IBIS diagram at this stage as the essay is relatively short and the subject matter is easy enough to understand. Other times when I’m doing something like a book, I’ll do an outline based on the introduction, chapters titles, and maybe even the blurb. Just to give you an idea of what I might do for a larger piece of prose, I’ve done an example using this essay. Of course anything larger would have more in it so the outlining IBIS diagram would be much larger.

The really important thing to notice here is how I have a question for the two ideas even though none is actually posed in the material. As IBIS practitioners, we know this as being a “hidden question” as it’s not been explicitly written in the essay. This is a very important concept in IBIS and I’ve got a short explanation further down in this post.

Step 2 – Viewing the Material (in this case reading the essay)

I refrain from building an IBIS diagram at this stage. This is so that I don’t distract myself from the content of the material. As you become proficient with IBIS you’ll find yourself building the IBIS diagrams in your head anyway as the notation becomes second nature and helps with understanding. If you live it and breathe it like Paul Culmsee and I do, you’ll find that you even do it when you’re listening to people to help you understand them better.

Step 3 – Reviewing the Material with IBIS

This is the part where you really focus on capturing the material in IBIS. Now to make it easy for you to read (and to make it easy for me to write this post), I’ve only captured the first chapter in IBIS. This step is more on the analytical side and seeking to understand the author’s concepts.

Step 4 – Synthesis

When you get really good with the IBIS notation and the principles it espouses, you’ll find that you will do a lot of Step 3 and Step 4 together anyway. The following is my revised diagram after absorbing the chapter and trying to understand what Orwell is attempting to communicate. At this point I’ve already had a chance to digest what Orwell is attempting to say and I try to rephrase it in a way that may help me understand it better. I do this by rephrasing nodes, changing the node types, and searching for more “hidden questions”.

“Hidden Questions”

I’ll go into “hidden questions” at greater length in one of my future posts, but for now I’ll provide a brief explanation. The simplest way to explain a “hidden question” is the US game show “Jeopardy!”. In” Jeopardy!” the contestants are told an answer by the host and they need to provide the correct question that the given answer is answering. This is often the same in life with prose, presentations etc. The author provides us his argument and often assumes the reader to be familiar with the background to the argument. Its then up to us, as the audience, to come prepared with the necessary knowledge to understand the argument.

Not knowing the “hidden questions” to an argument is the root cause of many misunderstandings. It would be no different to a 12 year old (assuming he’s not some Doogie Howser smart arse) attempting to read and understand the book “Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory” before learning gravity, general relativity etc. That may be an extreme example but the situation happens more often than you may imagine. We often assume we understand the explanation of X in relation to Y only to find out from someone else that the explanation of X was actually in reference to Z. One of the fundamental principles of IBIS is to always explicitly ask the “hidden question”.

Refactoring IBIS Diagrams to Improve Understanding

If you compare the diagram I had in Step 3 and the diagram in Step 4, you’ll notice that I added a few of the “hidden questions”. As a result of adding these questions, I’ve then been forced to rephrase some of the idea nodes and move them around. We refer to this process as “refactoring” the IBIS diagram. What you’ll hopefully notice is that these questions are never actually written in the essay. This is my personal attempt at trying to understand Orwell’s essay.

Before anyone says it, I want to make it clear that by refactoring the IBIS diagram and adding in these answers I have possibly muddied the meaning of Orwell’s essay and that I’m well aware of this. I want to remind those people that the purpose of this particular diagram is to facilitate my personal learning and to visualise my personal learning journey.

My personal feeling is that the real value of using IBIS comes from having easy access to the refactoring process. Learning should be a fluid task and our knowledge should be malleable when more information comes to light. The IBIS diagram acts as a malleable surface on which to visually organise and refine my thoughts. When I learn something new and spot inconsistencies in my thinking I can refine my understanding. In addition to my own refining, I can also seek the input and feedback of another source for further refinement. At the same time I can share my learning journey with others to help them with their journey and hopefully aid them in their refinement.

Diagramming your Own “Learning Journey”

Towards the end there I got a little abstract so I’m going to stop the post at this point and hope that what I’ve explained above is enough for you to go off and attempt a few IBIS diagrams. Getting familiar with IBIS comes with practice and your first diagrams will always look pretty bad to begin with but don’t let this discourage you. I personally like to think of IBIS as an imperfect scratchpad for all my thoughts (my memory sucks if you weren’t already aware) that is in perpetual search for perfection. Along the way outputs like reports, essays, software etc. emerge out of the contents of my IBIS diagrams as they are required, but the diagrams themselves continue living and learning.

As a final “invite”, if you want a homework assignment please have a go at developing an IBIS diagram for George Orwell’s essay “Some Thoughts on the Common Toad” and send me your IBIS diagrams (send me the Compendium XML export or a screenshot). I’ll try my best to reply and provide constructive feedback to help you on your journey to becoming a pro with IBIS. Get in contact with me through Twitter and I’ll happily send you my email address.

P.S. Thanks to Neil for pointing this out… I never actually pointed out what the “hidden questions” were in my final refactored IBIS diagram above. Tweet me what you think are the hidden question/s above and also for all of Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” essay.